True RMS measurements require instrumentation devices that accurately implement the RMS equation.
Instrumentation Engineers should be aware of IC Op Amp errors and their impact on specific application topologies.
This application note discusses the internal origin of IC differential amplifier common mode gain (Acm) and some of the external applications that create common mode voltages.
Over the years the 4-20 mA transmitter has become an accepted standard technique for transmitting information between field I/O and the control area.
One of the most linear, stable, and reproducible temperature sensors is the Platinum RTD, Resistance Temperature Detector.
The detail mathematics of modern thermocouple theories are very complex and involves electron quantum theory, however the fundamental concept is straightforward.
The theory of thermocouple behavior is discussed in this application note.
Unwanted ground currents (Ig) often exist creating undesirable Ig*Zg voltage drops.
This application note reviews practical single-phase current calculations using phasors and "name-plate" data.
This application note is a continuation of Dataforth's Application Note AN109
, which contains AC system definitions and basic rules for calculations.
The "power factor" of AC systems is the cosine of the angle by which the AC current leads or lags the applied AC excitation voltage.
The objective of this application note is a brief review of filter fundamentals primarily focused on the amplitude response of low-pass (LP) filters in industrial SCMs.
A brief visual examination of typical SCM low-pass (LP) filter pulse and phase characteristics.
In the process of analyzing system accuracy needs, the topic of resolution requires attention as it relates to overall accuracy.
Analog information must first be transformed to its digital equivalent using an analog-to-digital converter (ADC).
Isolating power sources and sensor signals is the most effective method for eliminating undesirable ground loop currents and induced electrical noise.
This application note will focus primarily on some subtleties of bridge circuit excitation and associated performance.
Today, process variables such as load weight, pressure, flow, distance, motion, vibration, etc., employ strain gage bridge circuits as the fundamental sensor device.
Product variation and defects undercut customer loyalty as well as company profits. Six Sigma is a rigorous, disciplined, data-driven methodology that was developed to enhance product quality and company profitability by improving manufacturing and business processes.
The wind turbine controller plays many roles and is at the heart of wind turbine safety and operability. Sensors are used to measure as many as 500 parameters in a modern wind turbine.
This application note examines the low pass (LP) filter topology attributes that are common to both the leading edge rise time response to an input step voltage and the amplitude frequency response.
PID controllers are used in most automatic process control applications in industry. This Application Note reviews the design of PID controllers and explains the P, I, and D control modes used in them.
With a slight modification of the Cohen-Coon tuning rules, control loops can still respond quickly, but they are much less prone to oscillations. This Application Note describes this modified Cohen- Coon tuning method.
This Application Note describes how to tune control loops using the Internal Model Control (IMC) tuning method, sometimes called Lambda tuning.
This Application Note describes how to tune level control loops using a slight modification of the Ziegler-Nichols tuning method which improves the loop stability.
The level-averaging method, preferred by most experts, minimizes control valve movement during disturbances, keeps the level between its limits, and brings the level back to set point in the long term.
This note is only concerned with Op-Amps and its purpose is to show how final equations of some basic errors are derived from first circuit principles - primarily node analysis.
This Application Note will revisit the definition of RMS, show RMS values for various time functions, and explore some interesting RMS measurement issues including frequency response and crest (or form) factor.
The objective of this Application Note is to show how different types of harmonics in a customer’s facility affect utility-measured quantities and costs. Harmonics are generated by electrical equipment, LED lighting, and other causes.
This Application Note is a block diagram describing the SCM9B/LDM422/485 RS-485 Connection.
This application note provides general notes on termination and block diagram describing various types of LDM485 to LDM485 to Other RS-485 Devices. Point-to-point, Multidrop, half and full duplex, and -2 and -4 wire configurations are addressed.
The measured output voltage of the SCM5B37 thermocouple module must often be converted back to temperature. This is readily done with the SCM5B37 series because cold junction compensation is incorporated into the module and the SCMPB backpanels.
Use of the ground jumper arrangement on the SCMPB01 and SCMPB02 backpanels depends on the particular host analog-to-digital converter (ADC) system connected to the backpanels and SCM5B modules. This application note details four common system interface schemes.
This application note addresses drift specifications and shows how to calculate Offset Drift, Gain Drift, and Total Drift.
Many sensors used in industry exhibit a deviation from an ideal (linear) relationship between input and output. Several of the SCM5B series modules have the capability of creating a non-linear transfer function through the module itself.
Industrial equipment located in the field is exposed to electrical noise, power surges, and transient events such as static discharge or lightning strikes. All Dataforth products are designed with the field inputs or field outputs protected against transient events.
Cable shielding is used primarily to minimize or eliminate capacitively coupled interference from electric fields. When properly implemented, it can also be used to minimize inductive coupling from magnetic fields. Shielding is only effective against electric fields if it provides a low impedance path to ground.
Electrical plant/process equipment often interact to create noise or electromagnetic interference (EMI) problems which can degrade critical measurement and control signals. Proper grounding and shielding techniques can help reduce or eliminate these problems and maintain signal integrity.
The Dataforth SCM5B43 was designed to interface directly to DC LVDTs; providing the required DC excitation, filtering, isolation, and output scaling to the user’s A/D equipment. The SCM5B43 1kHz bandwidth reduces ripple and noise which is inherent in these devices.
When SCM7B37 thermocouple modules are used to measure temperature, the measured output voltage must often be converted back to temperature. This is readily done with the SCM7B37 series because Cold Junction Compensation (CJC) is incorporated into the module and SCM7B backpanels.
The results of performing a 100-run Monte Carlo analysis on the SCM7B filter circuitry in both the frequency and time domains are presented.
Failure rate calculations for the SCM7B modules are derived from 1.) the MIL- HDBK-217 (Reliability Prediction of Electronic Equipment), and 2.) Demonstrated Performance.
This application note describes the DSCA calibration procedure.
Failure rate calculations for the DSCA, SCM5B, SCM7B, and 8B modules are derived from MIL-